Critical Thinking Skills

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Welcome to the Critical Thinking Skills Page.

Here you will find resources and links for developing your skills as a critical thinker in life, in work, in research.

Being able to think critically is an important skill in your personal and working life. Being able to understand the world as objectively and possible involves asking questions, challenging assumptions (our own and other peoples’) and becoming aware of different points of view, the quality and vaidity of information and the fallacies of thinking we can fall into.

Critical thinkers are more aware – of the world around them and of themselves. Critical thinkers seek different perspectives and to come closer to truth. There are many different approaches to critical thinking and it is a skill we can develop and practise.


Useful links

What is critical thinking? A good definition from Hong Kong University

Critical thinking skills defined and how to development – useful article from the Thinker Academy

A useful diagram of the critical thinking process

Some useful tips for critical thinking

Watch this TED talk offering 5 Tips for Improving Critical Thinking

Nine strategies for critical thinking in everyday life – a helpful article

An article on learning the art of critical thinking

An outline of six basic critical thinking skills. And six exercises to strengthen them.

Some exercises to improve critical thinking skills.

Some critical thinking activities to get you started. And here are fifty more activities for practising critical thinking.

7 Puzzles to challenge your critical thinking

An informative interview with an expert on critical thinking  (and some of his research into critical thinking)

Some quotes on critical thinking
An online quiz  to test your critical thinking

The Harvard Guide to evaluating sources 

Evaluating the quality and credibility of sources of information

Evaluating research and academic sources

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Assertiveness Skills

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Welcome to the Assertiveness Skills page.

Here you can find resources and links to help you become more assertive.

Whether at work, at home, socialising with friends, at college or online, assertiveness is a key skill. This is a loud, often competitive world, and being able to be heard, to assert yourself is an important way to be happy and effective.

Assertiveness isn’t about being loud, it isn’t the same as aggression, and it isn’t about winning. Assertiveness is about being direct, open, and true to yourself and others. Assertiveness places you in the world on equal terms with others. If you are shy or introvert in your personality, being assertive doesn’t mean you have to start shouting. It is possible to be quietly assertive and that can be as effective as asserting yourself through a forceful voice or gestures. We are all different, and each of us will be assertive in unique ways.

“When we practice assertiveness, we improve our self esteem and confidence. By being assertive you are helping other people to do the same. Read through the following assertiveness quotes to help you to become more assertive in your daily life.”

“The only healthy communication style is assertive communication”. Jim Rohn


Useful links

A good overview from University of Warwick

A good introduction to Assertiveness from GetSelfHelp and another good intro here

An online guide to being assertive

Some useful tips on being more assertive

Five tips for being assertive from a psychologist. And 5 tips from a coach.

A good list of ten tips for being more assertive.

Some specific advice for students (from Oxford Brookes University)

Do students need to be more assertive? An article from The Guardian

Some assertiveness techniques and exercises

An excellent online course in assertiveness from the Centre for Clinical Interventions

Ten Guilt-free ways to say No – how to be assertive when saying no

How to say No at work – some simple, visually presented tips from Forbes

A Shy Person’s Guide to being  heard in a group – very helpful tips for shy and introvert people

More advice for quieter people about being heard in a group

A questionnaire to assess how assertive you are

12 aspects of assertive behaviour – a helpful list

Some assertiveness scenarios with advice

Read more quotes on assertiveness here

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Academic Writing Skills

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Academic Writing Skills Resources

Welcome to the academic writing skills resource page. Here you’ll find links to useful resources and activities for the academic writing skills sessions run by Paul Levy.

A useful writing checklist

Different styles of writing

Your introduction

Writing an introduction and here’s a sample introduction

 

The Body an an Essay

Writing the body of an assignment or essay (Try two activities)

a) The title and wording of the assignment (whether it is your own, negotiated with the tutor- or one that has been given to you).

b) The statement of intent that you write in the introduction, based on the title.

Once you have dealt with the above two elements, the main body of the assignment probably then serves to do at least two things:

a) Demonstrate/show your knowledge of the topic, by including relevant evidence;

b) Analyse/evaluate the evidence you have gathered.

Referencing your work

Referencing – Resources and guidelines

In-text referencing (what you write IN your essay)

List of References (what you write AT THE END of your essay)

Internet References

Notes and Footnotes

Recommended Reading

Some recommended books on academic writing

Other useful links and resources

A free online thesaurus

How to overcome writers’ block – a good set of tips

How to structure an essay

According to Kathy Livingston’s Guide to Writing a Basic Essay, there are seven steps to writing a successful essay:
  1. Pick a topic. …
  2. Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas. …
  3. Write your thesis statement. …
  4. Write the body. …
  5. Write the introduction. …
  6. Write the conclusion. …
  7. Add the finishing touches.

An explanation of objectivity and subjectivity in writing

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Sleeping on Decisions

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A Wise Approach to Group Decision Making

I know we’re all supposed to be busy. Somehow busyness has become equated with effectiveness which has an Alice-in-Wonderland feel to it, yet too many people have still bought this pup.

We need to get to decisions “quickly”; an effective meeting is one where decisions are reached, where there is agreed “action”. It’s almost as if actions in themselves are good things, regardless of their content. I think this is a kind of generic reaction to the countless meetings people have attended where there was no action or decision at all. Meetings, bloody meetings! etc.

Although not a huge fan of meditation (I prefer a Pooh Bear-like serious think with some honey to follow), there is some sense in the notion I once heard that we should allow an equal amount of silence to follow a meditational verse or sentence. We have to let it “sink in”. I do like the silence that sometimes follows a stunning piece of live music before the audience erupts into the responsive applause. It’s rare, but it happens.

Allowing words and thoughts to sink in seems to make common sense. I like the notion that, for every five minutes of speaking, we should have five minutes of thinking, or quiet reflection time. I like the idea of an afternoon siesta where we wake up fresh.

Whether you have any spiritual ideology of what human beings are, or not, we seem to have an inner space where we dream, where we imagine, where we relax, where we “let go”, where we get inspired; a place that sometimes just to be quite quiet – we lie on a sofa, or sit in a cafe just “letting”. It seems a place where things can cook slowly, where silence seems to let us “just reflect”.

Silence is not something tolerated in many organisations; it’s deemed to be unproductive. Yet it’s been proven unproductive to make products to stock, rather than to real customer orders, for then waste builds up, unsold “inventory”. A factory can be productive making nothing, if there are no real orders; then we can tidy the factory, do some thinking – some problem solving. This lies at the heart of the Japanese “Just in time” system of making things. A factory is not “idle” when it isn’t making products – it is simply free to do some other kinds of activity. It makes something only when there is a “pull” of demand from the customer.

Sleep is usually restorative. I see it as a spiritual cup of tea. In The Number One Ladies’ Detective Agency by Alexander McCall-Smith, Mma Ramotswe, the “lady” detective believes a cup of Redbush tea always makes things feel better, always helps you to get perspective and a clearer view of difficult cases, tough, seemingly insoluable problems.

For me, sleep is a spiritual cup of tea. If we sleep on a problem, taking those questions into our sleep, I’ve heard enough tales of people waking up with fresh impetus and even new answers that would have been different to ones offered the night before. Often if you sleep on a problem, the solution you wake up with is a better one. So said Sherlock Holmes as well!

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So, no matter how inconvenient and “unproductive” it might seem, I propose that meetings at work, especially where big decisions need to be made, are divided into two parts, separated by the night where everyone can sleep on the proposals for decision and action. ON the second day, at part two of the meeting, we come to decision.

Not only would better decisions be made, but also DIFFERENT decisions would be made. Our hurry to action can be a clumsy way to travel. The night offers up silence, it offers up dreams (not all happy) and we often awaken with the answers we are looking for. A new meeting structure then:

Day 1
Exploring issues, proposals ideas and arriving at choices and options for decision

Allowing the options to “sink in”, to float a little, to hand in the air, the swirl, over night and into the waking morning. (this really isn’t as hippy as it sounds)

Day 2
Arriving a decision and action

You can allow the  same amount of time for the meeting. Try it, you might just find the decisions are better and the time taken is actually less.

When we speak a lot, we also think a lot. It’s important to take these thoughts and words back into ourselves, to let the thoughts order and settle. Making decisions together can also feel like a chaotic process and allowing the discussion to “sink in” overnight, and to re-merge after a restorative sleep, often improves the quality of the decisions we then make the next day. We may also take our questions into our dream life and new insights can often emerge on waking in the morning.


Visit the Facilitation Zone

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The Real Art of Flip Charting

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One of the physical meeting tools most misunderstood and misused by facilitators is the flip chart.

Wikipedia gives us a useful reminder of what a flip chart is and where it came from:

“A flip chart is a stationery item consisting of a pad of large paper sheets. It is typically fixed to the upper edge of a whiteboard, typically supported on a tripod or four-legged easel. Such charts are commonly used for presentations. The flip chart is thought to have been invented by Peter Kent who built one to help him in a presentation. He went on to found the visual communications group Nobo plc.” (Reference here)

As a presentation tool it can be used for writing ideas upon “as you go” in a spontaneous way. Pages can also be pre-set- written up, and then pages are flipped over, a bit like slides. As a facilitation tool, it is usually used to collect ideas in small groups, to post agendas, and to draw stuff.

Unlike a white (wipe) board, once you’ve committed to ink, you can only cross out.

Now, that’s the boring stuff out of the way, let’s dive merrily down into hell.

Flip charts are of a certain standard size. They are intended for smallish groups. There is no point in using them if the participants can’t read them. So, here are some of my favourites (and I’ve seen some otherwise very capable facilitators commit these crimes against humanity):

– using the flip chart in large rooms where people at the back have no chance of being able to read the words on them, or see the pictures and diagrams on them

– using the flip chart in a circle where people to the immediate left and right of the chart have no chance of being able to see what’s on them, or have to break their necks trying

– standing in front of the flip chart, blocking it for long periods of time, whilst writing on it and, sometimes, standing there blocking even after having finished writing

– writing illegible, over-small learning to the right scrawl that can’t even be properly read or seen by the facilitator

–  writing the last six ideas right at the bottom of the page, out of view, because the facilitator doesn’t want to flip the page over yet.

– flipping a page over because the facilitator has run our of space or wants to move on and thus consigning participants’ important written up ideas and feelings to invisible,  forgotten oblivion

– writing in lighter colours that can’t be seen from a distance in bright rooms – red, green, even orange, instead of black or dark blue.

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Flip charts are not intended for large rooms, They are also not intended for circles. Flip charts are intended for small groups, ideally in semi circles.

Flip charts require a unique skill in writing that is sensitive to see-ability and legibility.

Using them badly is the hallmark of bad facilitation.

Guilty? Read on…

Flip charts can be used in different ways

Flip charts are terrific ways to collect ideas or to present “work in progress” ideas to small groups of no more than twelve.

They work well in versions of a semicircle layout or in small groups where there are rows of raked seating (but beware of the angle of view – it is hard to see flip chart writing from too wide an angle).

They are often put in meeting and class rooms that they are not designed to be in.

They are very good with temporary, transient content. They are for content where you can easily flip the page without alienating participants by removing their contributed ideas from view.

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The danger of ripping each page off (this is usually done spectacularly badly with ripping and tearing that has no idea what a straight line looks like – use a long ruler) is that we then have to put them somewhere. That works well if posting them onto walls is later accessible and readable as needed. It works less well if we are parking them and they still need to be read by the participants on the go. Use movable boards on wheels to post them next to the flip chart. Here we can create a dynamic and see-able content well. But don’t just sticky tack them anywhere unless it is that “rough workshoppy” feel that you want to create.

Flip charts break the circle

Flip charts really aren’t much good in a circle of chairs. If you bring the flip chart into the circle so it stands where a chair might have been, you are excluding three of four participants on either side of it from  a clear view. Necks will start to ache as heads have to turn too far, and those people start to switch off.

Use a semi-circle layout instead and test out the view from each chair. Set just the right distance for people to see and read and give yourself ample space on either side to be able to stand without blocking the view of the flip chart.

When a flip chart breaks a circle, the power of the circle diminishes – so make a semi circle. People can still see each other, as well as the emerging content on the flip chart.

Write Artfully – Use the Flip Chart as it was meant to be used

Flip charts work well if you don’t write too much on them. They are good for capturing ideas – dynamic content owned by the participants. They are terrific for small group conversation.

It takes some skill to write onto a flip chart from the side, leading in. Text tends to change in size, start to sink down the page, and get smaller as you write further away from you.

It’s all about angles!

Most flip charts face a bit upwards, at an upturned angle. If the paper is a bit shiny it will more easily reflect strong light. So, be careful where you place it and be ready to turn off a light or two if there is distracting reflection.

Also they are flat on. So, unless someone is directly opposite the flip chart, a bit like watching a TV from an angle, the text will skew a bit. So, ensure it is located, theatre style, in a way that everyone can easily see it. And, as mentioned earlier, create a clear space for you to stand that doesn’t block the view.

Flip charts are potentially good or bad theatre. Place them well. When you enter a meeting space for the first time, take command of that space as much as you can; walk into and about the space. Move chairs and be prepared to relocate the flip chart to a place that optimises participant engagement and access.

There’s an art to it. Placing the flip chart, choosing the pens, the style and way of writing – all can be done consciously, deftly and eloquently, or they can be done clumsily, clunkily and lazily. It’s up to you.

But there is an art to it. There is a skill to it.

You’ll need to practice and adapt. Try these:

– sit in all of the seats and do a sight test. How big does the writing need to be for participants to be able to easily see it?

– practice writing from an angle – it’s a skill you can develop

– write larger rather than smaller and avoid joined up writing unless it is very clear

– practice writing a key phrase clearly then step back and to the side and stand always in a place where participants can all see the entire flip chart page

– don’t use the white space near and at the bottom of the page – it is always a bit hard to see – leave a bit of white space

– create a movable content wall next to or near the group for parking and posting pages you want to flip over, but still be on view

– use colours to underlines and put boxes and bullet points but always write in a clear, thick dark colour or it won’t be seen

– have plenty of spare pens and don’t writing with fading ink. And don’t use white board pens – they aren’t made for flip charts and quickly run out

– get used to flip charting, get comfortable with them and used to being in command of them, placing them consciously in the room

Crap charting

Unconfident facilitators do a lot of crap charting. Crap charting is writing up crap on a flip chart. Crap includes irrelevant information, writing up too much, phrasing participants’ ideas in language that is more your own than that of participants.

Flip charts are made for capturing participant ideas that they feel ownership of. It is made for simple diagrams and short phrases. It isn’t made for writing up a lot of crap, for detailed note taking (though a lot of people use it for this).

Flip charts are great for emergent content. They can help open space for people’s ideas,  capturing important issues, questions and actions. They are good for temporary ideas and should be labelled so. Or they can be good for drafting ideas before they are later typed up.

Examples of crap charting include:

– writing that is too small or illegible

– diagrams that are too complex, hard to understand or see

– collecting ideas for their own sake (bad brainstorming)

– writing up stuff so you don’t have to look participants in the eye (because of nerves or because you are at a loss at what else to do)

– writing up stuff that will be binned soon after and no one really feels ownership of

– writing up others’ thoughts but framing them in your own words or editing them so that what appears does not truly reflect what was said (crap rendering and crap summarising)

Finally…

Facilitators often flip charts lazily and unskilfully in ways that alienate, exclude and switch off. Yet with a bit of practice and awareness, they can be very useful and vibrant tools. I love paper and pens. Flip charts let you use big paper and big pens! What joy!

They are best used with conscious care and for the right reasons. They are theatre.  Make it a five star show.

Use them consciously. Use them well. Or perhaps, use something else?


Visit the Facilitation Zone.

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The Rise of Horizontal Trust

When hierarchies break down or fail us, horizontal trust tends to emerge. A hierarchy is a vertical form of organisation. Armies are hierarchies. Many religious systems are hierarchies. Families are hierarchies. In vertical hierarchies, power increases at highly levels. Often (but not always), accountability also is higher the higher up you go. In a bank, there is a highly paid boss – a chief executive. There are senior managers, middle managers, supervisors, employees etc. If I want a loan from a bank, as the amount of the loan goes up, the level of “sign off” needed is usually higher up in the organisation’s hierarchy.

In restaurants there are chefs and sous-chefs (literally, under-chefs). In schools there is a “head master”. The word “head” gives a clue as to what vertical hierarchies are. We make big decisions with our brains, which are located in our heads. So, the “head” of an organisation is usually at the top of the hierarchy. He or she looks “down” on the rest of the organisation that carries out the decisions. In many vertical hierarchies, power is higher, the higher up you go. The lower down you go the more people are simply obeying the decisions or the higher up “heads” or “head”.

When this works, we trust those higher up. They have authority because we believe in them and have faith in their ability to make the right decisions. We entrust them with the “thinking”, the decision making. In a well functioning vertical hierarchy, those are the top are trusted. When trust breaks down, all kinds of hell can break lose. There are complaints, people go on strike, people leave, or they stay and sabotage or try to cope, with rising dissatisfaction.

If you don’t trust your bank, you can withdraw your money. If you don’t trust your patents, you don’t confide in them. If you mistrust your doctor, you throw the medicine away. Mistrust often arises from episodes where we have been failed, let down, where we feel we were lied to, manipulated or even dmaaged or abused. Trust is easy to lose, much harder to win back. In vertical hierarchies we invest those higher up with our faith. When they let us down, that faith is weakened, even destroyed.

More to come

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Mission-driven businesses – a first look

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The emergence of mission-led businesses

What is the mission of your business ? The word “mission” is a buzz word that has been around for decades in relation to the business world. Can a business really have a mission? The UK government is getting interested in “Mission-led businesses, stating “new businesses are emerging that seek to achieve social as well as financial impact.” The World Economic Forum pointed to the benefit to both society and the “bottom line” of mission-led businesses. They also offer some examples:

“There are examples from all over the world. Warby Parker, a manufacturer in the United States, distributes a pair of glasses in a developing country for each pair it sells in a developed one. Natura, a Brazilian beauty and cosmetics firm, is working to become carbon neutral. Bridges International Academies, founded in Kenya, educate underprivileged children across Africa and Asia. They’re one of the largest chains of primary schools in the world.”

Defining mission

So what does “mission” mean? A mission is actually a collection of things all designed and operated in accordance with a purpose. There are still missions around the world, especially in the development field. The word, of course, also referred to (and still does) religious missions. There are also missions into space ! All have an established sense of purpose.

To be a mission that purpose has to be aspirational, ambitious, aimed at realising some values in practice. When that happens in practice, the people involved are behaving in a “missionary” way.

Sometimes that mission is imagined in advance. At that stage it is just a vision. It becomes a mission when we get to work, when we put that vision into practical action.

When the mission needs to change

If the vision is too fixed and the world around the mission changes, the mission may begin to fail. If the mission is formed out of a wish to influence the world around it, then it has to be adaptive to remain relevant. Missions evolve and fail to adapt at their peril.

Not all missions need to do that, especially if they don’t have a social element to their purpose. Missions can be very simple and may not need to change if the environment is fairly static.

I could go on a mission to withdraw from the world. yet even that mission may be thwarted if the mountain cave I retreat to is destroyed by an earthquake or turned into a mine!

Missions are open systems in dynamic environments

So, most missions are open systems in changing environments, because that is how our world is.

Missions need to evolve to survive, be realised and to stay needed and relevant. Many missions fail because they don’t respond through innovation and adaptation to the dynamic environment around them. This is a major cause of failure in small businesses.

The elements of missions

Missions are made up of people, vision, values, resources, energy, knowledge, experience and methods.

We form our mission out of these elements. A mission can be started –  initiated by an individual, a group and even a much larger community.

But often a mission is a reaction to a wish to affect something in the world.

Missions often include:

– a vision of where we are trying to get to as a business 

– a picture of the future that describes a desired state

– a passionate statement about the world – past, present and future

– ambitions for our products, services and our “footprint” in the world – ethical, social, environmental, cultural and economic

– clear goals and targets for achieving our purpose

– a statement of what we are restless to change or address in the world

– ground-breaking ideas or thoughts, suggestions and possibilities about technology and the present and future potential of aspects of the world

Moral or Social missions

Moral missions are on a line of “good and evil” or “right and wrong, also “fair and unfair” and are aimed at transforming the world, or part of it, towards a set of moral values.

For example: To improve the environment, to increase freedom, to improve health. But there are other missions that aren’t about “doing the good” for society but may be focused on personal ambition, winning, and even harming others.

Mission-led businesses

A mission-led business is not necessarily a good, well-motived business. In the commercial realm, a business may have a complex mission – it may have a core mission and other missions that relate more or less to it. A business may have profit maximisation as its mission  (most do) but also a secondary mission to benefit humanity through its products. Increasingly new businesses run by “millennials” are putting social mission at least on s par with economic mission.

But that secondary mission can create a kind of cognitive dissonance (a gap between where we want to be and where are are) if it means we will have to compromise, and profit optimise instead of maximise. Of course innovation is also a mission and this can be pursued I order to find ways to both benefit humanity AND maximise profits. However, we may end up having to adjust our mission – either by compromising on how much we benefit humanity or whether we can only optimise and not maximise our profits

Three types of mission-led business

Mission-led businesses can take different forms. There are at least three basic types:

1. Primary social mission-led businesses

A mission-led business can have a social mission as its primary underlying purpose. For example, its mission can be to help homes become carbon neutral. It’s economic mission is put the the service of that mission. Profit, at least in part, is prioritised towards realising that mission. Wealth arises from passion and commitment to the mission. Profit and revenue become a side-effect of realising a  relevant social mission in the world. Many of these businesses take the legal form of a charity or a Community interest company. But not all. Some don’t even realise how socially mission-led they are!

2. Profit-driven social mission-led businesses

A mission-led business may also have a very different mission. It might simply be a fast food restaurant. It’s primary mission might be to maximise profits delivering that product or service. But it might also be led by a secondary mission to be carbon neutral. Here the secondary mission can be more or less prioritised; it can be seen as more or less important. If the secondary mission is strong, or even as strong as the primary one, then the business will focus all of its creative energy on delivering and innovating its product in ways that achieve its secondary mission. If the secondary mission is less important than the primary one, then compromises arise. The business may dilute its mission to be carbon neutral in favour of profit maximisation. Here tensions clearly arise.

3. Social mission opportunist businesses

There is also a third type of mission-led business. here the primary mission and secondary mission are equal. The business might genuinely be committed to providing healthy food, for example. But this is really a business opportunity. It’s there to maximise its returns. The business is an opportunist and the social mission is really just a business opportunity for earning money. Many businesses are like this. Some fake the mission as an advertising strategy. Others start with good intentions but then sell to the highest bidder. Others are simply not very open or conscious as businesses and kid themselves about their motives.

In all three cases there are different tensions between social and financial missions.

The tensions between economic and social missions

Mission-driven businesses have to face these tensions all the time, if their mission is both moral and commercial. There is a tension that requires creativity and dialogue here, that is often lacking in many businesses.

A business driven by a social or moral mission needs to be open to adapting its commercial choices to its moral motives and realities. The moral/social and financial/economic missions will have to marry up.

In other words, if it wants to do good, it may have to accept that comes at a financial cost.

Yet also it can develop a third mission to be an ever-improving innovator in order to find ways of being agile, creative and smart in its ability to authentically achieve its financial mission AND achieve its moral mission.

So, a key challenge for mission-led businesses is to openly explore into,  and dialogue around the tensions between the social and commercial “sub-missions”. Indeed, discernment and the ability to find balance here is going to be a critical skill for leaders and founders of mission-led businesses.

The Danger of Collusion

Here there’s a danger: Collusion can kick in. If, in reality, the economic pressures are greater than the social ones, (for example, if there is pressure from shareholders to maximise short term returns), employees can collude and the business can become biased towards the financial bottom line at the expense of its social bottom line, though its rhetoric may still claim its mission is primarily prioritised in the moral realm. That business  becomes two-faced.

The collusion occurs when leaders, employees, suppliers and other stakeholders play along, often from fear of losing their jobs, losing contacts, or losing influence, and even being harmed in other ways. Breaking that collusion is key if the mission-driven business wants to maintain its integrity.

The Role of Integrity

Integrity is what holds the mission or missions together. Collusion can end up as a more or less weak or strong glue that ‘band aids’  that mission together as it loses integrity.  Those committed to the social mission complain, collude or leave.

Integrity is only truly maintained through:

– evidence-based decision making rather than opinions based on power and influence rather than reality

– honesty and openness, including challenge being welcomed when anyone believes the mission is changing or being compromised 

– creativity and innovation where the business proactively looks to challenge its mission(s) in order to keep everything relevant, real, and responsive

Without integrity, a mission-driven business can degrade. Motivation can fall, and the business can even become “outed” as hypocritical, deceptive or simply weak or dishonest. Integrity is the clear and shared connection between the mission(s) of a business and its practice in the public eye. That public eye is both internal in terms of employees, and external in terms of customers, suppliers and other stakeholders.

The Payoff and the outcomes

When missions are shared openly, assessed and measured transparently, avoid collusion and fear to challenge, when they are innovated and open to internal and external dialogue and scrutiny, they can be relevant, purposeful and motivating.

They can energise people, groups and communities and enable the business to be profitable and purposeful beyond profit.

Mission-driven businesses need integrity, and to be able to innovate and adapt, not only their products and services, but also the mission itself.

When it works, society benefits, the business benefits. Mission creates satisfaction, and a sense of purpose and achievement.

 


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Paul Levy is a writer, facilitator and senior researcher at the University of Brighton. he is the author of the book, Digital Inferno. Paul is the founder of the mission-led businesses CATS3000 and FringeReview

 

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